Identify the type of bleeding[edit | edit source]
- Capillary-- Light oozing bleeding: scrapes and shallow cuts.
- Veinous-- Dark red blood, steady flow: minor to moderate cuts, tears, small punctures.
- Arterial-- Bright red blood that spurts with pulse: serious cuts, punctures, tears. Life threatening! Call 911.
Identify the type of wound[edit | edit source]
- Abrasion-- Scrape (e.g., road rash); painful, may be contaminated with debris.
- Laceration-- Cut made by a sharp object: may be straight or jagged, superficial or deep.
- Puncture-- May haven little bleeding around the outside, but there is possiblility of internal bleeding.
- Avulsion-- Tearing off of skin or body part, ranging from a flap of skin to a near amputation.
- Amputation-- When a body part becomes completely severed: may have extreme or slight bleeding.
Standard open wound treatment[edit | edit source]
- BSI and Initial assessment.
- Expose wound. Remove clothing as necessary.
- If bleeding is not severe, rinse the wound and apply dressing.
- Don't pick out individual bits of crud-- that requires more sterile instruments.
- Apply direct pressure to the wound (10 minutes uninterrupted).
- Apply indirect pressure if there are any objects impaled in the wound. Do not ever remove impaled objects. Pad around them to stabilize them and call 911.
- If bleeding continues, add more dressings, but do not peel back dressing to look at wound, as this will break up the clot that may be forming.
- If bleeding continues, elevate the wound.
- If bleeding persists, call 911. Apply pressure to brachial or femoral pressure points (if injury is on a limb).
- Once bleeding is controlled, apply a pressure bandage. Check capillaries to make sure it's not too tight.
- Apply dressing as needed to hold the bandage in place and to protect the wound.
Aftercare[edit | edit source]
Infection[edit | edit source]
If signs of infection appear-- pus, bad smell, fever, or swollen lymph nodes:
- Apply compresses of warm salt water 3 times a day. 2 tablespoons of bleach added to the water will do a great deal to treat the infection.
- You can spread on honey or a little antibiotic ointment such as Neosporin after each soak.
- Get the person to further care (like a doctor). They may need antibiotics. Certain types of infections can kill a person within a few days.
Special considerations[edit | edit source]
- Police dog bite.
- Special considerations for gunshot wounds and shrapnel wounds.
- Documenting injuries (police brutality).
- Other protocols.
Notes[edit | edit source]
This material is intended as a training supplement. Reading this material is no substitute for first aid / medical training with a qualified trainer. We encourage you to pursue ongoing education, reviewing and upgrading your skills-- for the safety of both yourself and anyone you treat.