Absence, otherwise brief episode of staring. There is no warning beforehand, and the person is completely alert afterward. Simple absence seizures are just stares, complex absence stares include changes in muscle activities so blinking, rubbing the fingers together, or smacking their mouth. Generally last 10-20 seconds.
Atypical absence, the person stares but is often somewhat responsive, usually last 5-30 seconds with a gradual beginning and ending.
Myoclonic, brief muscle jerks before sleep or after waking up, usually located in should/neck area, limbs, and digits.
Atonic, the person is usually conscious, and they suddenly fall to the ground. Lasts 15 seconds.
Tonic, usually during sleep, the body suddenly stiffens, consciousness is generally preserved. If the person is awake, they will often fall.
Clonic, repeated jerking.
Seizures can be caused by stress, low blood sugar, electrolyte imbalance, light, sleep deprivation, and many other triggers.
Post-tictal states, period after seizures have ended, can be very painful. Often times people will want to be taken away from noise and light. It is good to get those people hydrated and lying down. If they have defecated or urinated on themselves, propose going to a bathroom.
People may be angry that they are in a vulnerable position. It is important to make them feel like they have agency.
You can do so by asking them specific questions:
Does your head hurt?
How is your neck feeling?
Do you know what triggered your seizure?
What do you usually do after a seizure?
It is important to ask them if they carry the medicine ativan, which can prevent follow up seizures.
A person who has experienced a tonic, clonic, tonic clonic, and/or atonic seizure may need to be watched for up to 24hrs, encourage them to contact friend or family for this.